The proposed project is based on Directive 2009/128/EC, the EU Thematic Strategy for Pesticides, and the Collegium Ramazzini Statement concerning control over pesticides and their impact on human health and the environment. The project will focus on studying two major pesticide classes with three subgroups per each: (A) insecticides (organophosphates, neonicotinoids, and pyrethroids), (B) herbicides (triazines, organophosphates, allelopathic), and persistent organochlorine pollutants under the Stockholm convention. Low concentrations corresponding to real-life exposures will be evaluated based on residential exposure levels, occupational exposure limits, acceptable daily intakes, and reference doses in appropriate cell lines and animal models. The malsegregation of chromosomes (X, Y, 9), integrity of gatekeeping genes (TP53, c-Myc), and protein structures (cytoskeleton components) will be studied within the transplacental genotoxic evaluation of selected pesticide groups. Among these, some are suspected to be endocrine disruptors. Potential effects on sex hormone levels will be assessed in neonatal rats and transfer via mother’s milk in pubertal rats. Oxidative stress will be estimated by measuring lipid peroxidation and activity of antioxidative enzymes in vitro and in vivo. We will study the processes affecting the distribution of pesticides in water/soil systems as well as the genotoxicity of their residues in soil and water. Results for low levels of pollutant exposure will serve to significantly extend the knowledge on their genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, sex endocrine disruption, mechanisms of oxidative stress, and distribution in the environment. Also, they will be used as a base for amending and adopting the Croatian National Action Plan for sustainable use of pesticides in accordance with demands postulated in Directive 2009/128/EC and the EU Thematic Strategy for Pesticides.